Intermediate-sized filaments are abundant cytoplasmic structural proteins in most vertebrate cells. Cytokeratins, a group of at least 29 different proteins, are characteristic of epithelial and trichophytic cells. Cytokeratins 4, 5, 6, and 8 are members of the neutral to basic type II subfamily. Cytokeratin peptide 4 (59 kDa) is type II secondary keratin expressed in non-cornified stratified squamous epithelia. Cytokeratin peptide 5 (58 kDa) is the primary type II keratin in stratified epithelia, while cytokeratin type 8 (52 kDa) is a major type II keratin in simple epithelia.
Cytokeratin 6 (56 kDa) is a “hyperproliferating” cytokeratin expressed in tissues with high natural or pathological turnover. Cytokeratins 10, 13, and 18 are members of the acidic type I subfamily. Cytokeratin peptide 10 (56 kDa) is a secondary type I keratin expressed in cornified epithelia. Cytokeratin 13 (54 kDa) types I secondary keratin expressed in non-cornified stratified squamous epithelia. Cytokeratin 18 (45 kDa) is the primary type I keratin expressed in simple epithelial cells.
Monoclonal Anti-Pan Cytokeratin (clone C-11) recognizes human cytokeratins 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 18 on immunoblotting. The antibody reacts with simple, cornifying, and non-cornifying squamous epithelia and pseudostratified epithelia. It does not react with normal non-epithelial human tissues. This antibody can be applied to methanol- or acetone-fixed frozen sections and to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissues.
An increase in staining intensity is observed after proteolytic treatment of formalin-fixed tissue. Similarly, methane-fixed material is also suitable for cytokeratin demonstration. Monoclonal Anti-Pan cytokeratin exhibits broad cross-reactivity between species (eg, Human, bovine, rat, frog).
Keratin-enriched preparation from cultured human squamous carcinoma cell line A431.
Monoclonal anti-cytokeratin, a pan antibody has been used in immunofluorescence microscopy. Monoclonal antitokeratins are specific markers of epithelial cell differentiation and have been widely used as tools in the identification and classification of tumors.
Mouse monoclonal mouse clone C-11 pan anti-cytokeratin antibody is a broad spectrum antibody that recognizes an epitope present in most human epithelial tissues. It facilitates the typing of normal, metaplastic, and neoplastic cells. It can help in the discrimination of carcinomas and non-epithelial tumors such as sarcomas, lymphomas, and neural tumors.
It is also useful for detecting micrometastases in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other tissues, and for determining the origin of poorly differentiated tumors. It is useful for staining cultured epithelial cell lines. The pan anti-cytokeratin antibody, mouse monoclonal clone C-11 can be used for the localization of cytokeratins using various immunochemical assays such as immunoblotting, dot blotting, and immunohistochemistry (immunofluorescence and immunoenzymatic staining).
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Biochemical / Physiological Actions
Cytokeratins are generally used to determine epithelial differentiation. They help maintain the integrity of the epithelium of the anterior segment of the eye.